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JAPANESE URBANIZATION

JAPANESE URBANIZATION

J A P A N E S E   U R B A N I Z A T I O N D E V E L O P M E N T   H I S T O R Y   &   C H A L E N G E S D U R I N G   M

J A P A N E S E   U R B A N I Z A T I O N

D E V E L O P M E N T   H I S T O R Y   &   C H A L E N G E S

D U R I N G   M E I J I   E R A   ~   P O  S T   W A  R

C I T Y   D E F I N I T I O N   &   C O N C E P T

  • CITY
  • METROPOLIS
  • MEGALOPOLIS.

A city is a large and permanent human settlement, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.

The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process, but it also presents challenges to managing urban growth.

A big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment.

Once a city expands far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a megalopolis. In terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai.

I N C R E A S I N G   U R B A N I Z A T I  O N   R  A T E S

MORE THAN HALF OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION NOW LIVES IN CITIES

URBAN VS. ECONOMIC CENTRALIZATION

POPULATION DENSITY IN 2005 BY OECD TL3 REGION  GDP PER KM2 IN 2005 BY OECD TL3 region

U R B A N   V S.   E C O N O M I C   C E N T  R A L I  Z A T I  O N

WH A T  I S   A   C I T Y ?

THREE KEY FEATURES OF CITIES:

  1. AGGLOMERATION
  • PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES WITH EMPLOYMENT DENSITY
  • INNOVATION HAPPENS IN DENSE URBAN CLUSTERS FIGURE
  • SOCIAL FORMATION OF VALUES AND BELIEFS FIGURE
  1. BRICKS AND MORTAR FIGURE
  • REAL ESTATE FIGURE
  • TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
  1. LOCAL POLICY

PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES WITH EMPLOYMENT DENSITY

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. AGGLOMERATION

D E N S I T Y   A N D   P R O D U C  T I V I T Y

INNOVATION HAPPENS IN DENSE URBAN CLUSTERS

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. AGGLOMERATION

EXISTING AND NEW SOFTWARE ESTABLISHMENTS IN SILICON VALLEY – FOURTH QUARTER 1997

SOCIAL FORMATION OF VALUES AND BELIEFS FIGURE

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. AGGLOMERATION

US VOTING PATTERNS IN THE 2004 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

R E A L   E S T A T E

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. BRICKS AND MORTAR

TOKYO REAL ESTATE                                                                                 CITY LIGHTS

T R A N S P O R T A T I O N   I N F R A S T R U C T U R E

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. 2. BRICKS AND MORTAR

T R A N S P O R T A T I O N   I N F R A S T R U C T U R E

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. 2. BRICKS AND MORTAR

T R A N S P O R T A T I O N   I N F R A S T R U C T U R E

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. 2. BRICKS AND MORTAR

L O C A L   P O L I C Y

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. LOCAL POLICY

CITY POPULATION SIZE VS UTILITY

J A P A N E S E   U R B A N I Z A T I O N


M E I J I   E R A

明治時代 Meiji-jidai

1868 ~ 1912

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

Kago – Rickshaw – International Trade & Influence

Ukiyoe:  is a genre of art that flourished in Japan from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock prints and paintings

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

While the Japanese Economic was internationally recognized by the second half of the twentieth Century, but the actual beginning of Japan’s road to modernization when the 16 years old emperor Mutsuhito selected the era name MEIJI for his reign. 1868 ~ 1916

After coming to power, the Meiji government wanted to ensure the people that the new order would be of justice and opportunity. The boundaries between the social classes were gradually broken down, and reforms led to the establishment of human rights and religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former Feudal lords (daimyo) were required to return their land to the emperor in 1870. The return of land to the central government allowed the collection of land tax to be more extensive and allowed the people to own their own land. This led to the restructuring of the country into prefectures that is currently still in implementation to this day.

 

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

 

The composition of Meiji’s ruling class was very similar to that of Western industrial countries. However there are two marginal differences which set Japan apart from the West. Most Western countries counted among their elite the magnates of various churches, while there were no such phenomenon in Japan. More significant difference lies in the fact that Meiji bureaucrats and managers tended to be completely divorced from the land.

The demographic picture of Japan showed a heavy concentration of the population in small villages

 

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

Process of Meiji Development – Economy:

  • RESPONSIBLE IN LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS NECESSARY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • LINKAGE BETWEEN THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORS THAT ACCOUNTED FOR THE INDUSTRIAL TAKE-OFF

In order to transform the economy from an agrarian one to a developed industrial state, Japanese scholars went abroad to study Western science and language, while foreign experts taught in Japan.

The government also invested heavily in public works such as railroad transportation and communication networks. The huge expenditures to industrialize led to a financial crisis in the mid 1880’s that resulted in reforms of the currency and banking system.

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

Transport & Urbanization of Japan during Meiji

  • The human-powered rickshaw was better suited to Tokyo’s narrow and dusty streets than a horse drawn carriage, and it brought wheeled transportation to the city without the costly infrastructure required by horses or engines

As the rickshaw increased in popularity for intra-city trips, the old canals and rivers became less important transportation corridors and the businesses that depended on them began to go out of business. By 1903 Tokyo would begin to build electric streetcars capable of carrying more passengers than the rickshaws and at a lower fare, reducing the rickshaw to the role of a taxi for the suburbs.

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

Transport & Urbanization of Japan during Meiji

  • Japan’s first railway constructed in 1872, Japan had never made much use of wheeled vehicles before the Meiji period, relying on ships and river ferries to transport goods.

the railways radically changed the size, shape, and purpose of Japan’s cities, linking them as they did to the outlying areas. The railways became a vital issue for the modernizing nation, as well as a topic of fascination for popular culture.

Conclusion: The Meiji period brought about drastic political, economic, and social changes in Japan, which in turn became the framework and foundation of modern Japan as we know it.

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

Transport & Urbanization Development in Osaka As an Example

  • The railway’s introduction in the 1870s reshaped and expanded the borders of the Japanese city, and the citizens adapted to the changing size and shape of the urban sphere by incorporating new modes of wheeled transport.

In addition to providing military advantages in troop movement and military readiness, the railways radically changed the size, shape, and purpose of Japan’s cities, linking them as they did to the outlying areas. The railways became a vital issue for the modernizing nation, as well as a topic of fascination for popular culture.

Conclusion: The Meiji period brought about drastic political, economic, and social changes in Japan, which in turn became the framework and foundation of modern Japan as we know it.

M E I J I   R E S T O R A T I O N

R O O T S   O F   M O D E R N   J A P A N

Transport & Urbanization of Japan during Meiji

  • The Japanese government saw the problems that increased urbanization had brought, and looked to the West for solutions. Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities of Tomorrow was introduced to Japan in 1907

Howard’s plan involved the construction of a human-scale satellite city built in rings around a suburban train station.

Tokyu corporation made a great deal of business in the 20th Century by improving land values by building train lines, and then financing new retail centers from the real estate profits. The changes in size, shape, and speed of the city affected all of Japan, connecting everyone more closely to Tokyo or Osaka. The railway networks may have made Japan a “smaller world,” but the industrial possibilities that steam power brought helped turn them into a large colonial power in the early 20th Century.

 

J A P A N E S E   U R B A N I Z A T I O N


P O S T   W A R

1945  ~

In 1945, a woman tends a garden in postwar Tokyo, a city where the line separating urban and rural has long been blurred

P O S T – W O R L D   W A R   II

POSTWAR REIGN

MARSHALL PLAN IN EUROP AND JAPAN

THE MARSHALL PLAN (OFFICIALLY THE EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAM, ERP)

GENERAL MACARTHUR AND THE EMPEROR HIROHITO 1945

In 1945, the General Headquarters of the Allied Powers (GHQ) introduced economic, social, and political democratization policies into Japan. These policies promoted farmland reform, labor system reform, zaibatsu dissolution, the elimination of excessive economic concentration, the abolition of various economic control laws and associations, and the enactment of the Act Concerning Prohibition of Private Monopoly and Maintenance of Fair Trade.

P O S T – W O R L D   W A R   II

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POLICY

Strong INNOVATION promoted by the ANTIMONOPOLY POLICY rapid postwar economic development

Difficult economic conditions persisted after World War II, spurring the adoption of temporary “B-type” government interventions until 1950. The government controlled the importation of goods with the Foreign Exchange Control Act of 1949, and regulated the importation of technologies with the Foreign Investment Act of 1950. This control continued through the liberalization of trade in 1960 and the liberalization of capital in 1968.

P R O S P E R I T Y ,   I N C H   B Y   I N C H

CITY POPULATION SIZE VS UTILITY

historical evidence shows that the Tokyo model of urban development wasn’t incidental to the economic rise of the city. Local construction practices, family-owned businesses (including manufacturing units), flexibility of land uses and live-work arrangements created a shadow, homegrown economy that went hand-in-hand with the city’s global-scale, export-orientated industrial development.

These mixed-use habitats and low-rise, high-density neighborhoods emerged by default, not design. But though the city didn’t plan them, it considered them legitimate and supported them. Sewage systems, water, electricity and roads were later infused into all parts of Tokyo, leaving no neighborhood behind, regardless of how slummy or messy it looked. Even the traditionally discriminated-against Burakumin areas were eventually provided access to state-of-the-art public services and amenities.

The notion that infrastructure must be adapted to the built environment, rather than the other way around, is a simple yet revolutionary idea. The Tokyo model, combining housing development by local actors and infrastructure from various agencies, explains why that city has some of the best infrastructure in the world today, not to mention a housing stock of great variety and bustling mixed-use neighborhoods.

R U R A L    U R B A  N   D E  V E L O  P M E N  T

CHALLENGES IN RURAL AREAS IN JAPAN

POLICY DIRECTION TO INVIGORATE RURAL AREAS

MAIN SUPPORT PROGRAMS TO INVIGORATE RURAL AREAS

C H A L L E N G E S    I N   R U R A L   A R E A S

  • Rapid population decrease and centralization to Tokyo metropolitan
  • Increase in (i) abandoned farmland, (ii) crop damage by wild animals, and (iii) vacant houses
  • Malfunctioning of communities and social services (transportation, health care…)

P O L I C Y   D I R E C T I O N   T O   I N V I G O R A T  E   R U R A L   A R E A S

CREATING JOBS:

  • Identify and utilize local resources
  • Value-adding to local products
  • Promote collaboration between primary, secondary and tertiary industries
  • Develop and utilize renewable energies
  • Promote social businesses
  • Invite various talented people from outside, utilize women’s power

P O L I C Y   D I R E C T I O N   T O   I N V I G O R A T E   R U R A L   A R E A S

STRENGTHENING LINKAGES BETWEEN COMMUNITIES:

  • Plan and design land use and communities’ future vision
  • Enhance community functions to manage local resources
  • Centralize social/public services into core area
  • Improve networks between communities

P O L I C Y   D I R E C T I O N   T O   I N V I G O R A T E   R U R A L   A R E A S

PROMOTING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN AREA

  • Publicity for values of rural areas
  • Promote green tourism, second house, migration…
  • Dispatch voluntary supporters to rural areas

P O L I C Y   D I R E C T I O N   T O   I N V I G O R A T E   R U R A L   A R E A S

SUPPORT PROGRAM TO INVIGORATE RURAL AREAS

R U R A L   I N V I G O R A T I O N   P R  O J E C T

  • TARGET INSTITUTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
  • SUPPORT MENU

TARGET INSTITUTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS

  • Local governments (prefectural or municipal level), cooperatives, NGOs or local institutions composed by farmers, communities, NGOs, private sector, local governments, etc.
  • Submission of Rural Invigoration Plan which identify challenges and opportunities and describe their future vision and actions in a targeted area

SUPPORT MENU

  • Infrastructure improvement for agricultural, forest or fishery production, processing facilities to increase the value of local products
  • Living conditions improvement for local residents and migrants
  • Facility construction or renewal to promote interaction between rural and urban area, migration from urban area, utilization/preservation of local resources

P R O M O T I O N   O F   R U R A L  – U R B  A N   I  N T E R  A C T I  O N

  • TARGET INSTITUTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
  • SUPPORT MENU

Target institutions

Rural association composed by communities, NGOs, private sector, local governments, etc., covering from one community to several municipalities

  • Support menu Fund provision for the activities of:

(i) exchange projects for children experiencing farming and rural life

(ii) promotion of green tourism

(iii) improvement of rural amenities (landscape, nature,…)

(iv) promotion of migration

(v) collaboration between agriculture and health care

(vi) network development between producers and consumers, etc.

Fund provision for human resource development, matching/dispatch of skilled supporters

Repair of vacant houses/unused school buildings to utilize for the activities above

 

D I R E C T   P  A Y M  E N T S   T O    R U R A L    D E V E L O P M E N T

  • Multi-functionality payments
  • Direct payment to farmers in hilly and mountainous areas
  • Direct payment for environmentally friendly agriculture

Multi-functionality payments

Support communities’ joint activities for:

(i)preserving local resources, and strengthening institutional arrangements

(ii)Improving the quality of local resources, and repairing/renewing agricultural facilities to lengthen their service lives

Direct payment to farmers in hilly and mountainous areas

Support activities in hilly and mountainous areas for: (i)preventing the farmland abandonment

(ii)maintaining agricultural facilities (canals, farm roads,…)

(iii)Improving landscape

Direct payment for environmentally friendly agriculture

Support the farming operations to reduce chemical fertilizer and agrichemical consumption by 50% or more in principle

L O C A L   P O L I C Y

FEATURES OF CITIES

  1. LOCAL POLICY

CITY POPULATION SIZE VS UTILITY

Yoshida Furusato-Mura Company

Yoshida area locates in hilly and mountainous area in western Japan.

  • Population has dramatically decreased from 5,000 (1955) to 2,800 (1985).
  • In order to increase job opportunities, Yoshida Furusato-mura Company, the third sector funded by local government, private sector and residents, was established in1985.
  • The company operates various services, hiring 69 employees in this area.

 

 

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